Experienced and professional animal trainer provide their insights in answering this question :
A. When tissues become inflamed, the regional lymph nodes that these tissues drain into will also become inflamed and swollen in response.In your pet it can be due to infection in his/her mouth, throat, ear or face.You should take your pet to your vets for examination and they will prescribe medication dependent on the underlying cause .

How to Identify Common Pet Problems ?

Our sources include academic articles, blog posts, and personal essays from experienced pet care professionals :

The most commonly identified swollen lymph nodes in dogs by dog owners are the submandibular lymph nodes. These are the lymph nodes located beneath the jaw and are often the most recognizable because their location makes them easy to see and feel.
A salivary mucocele is the most common salivary gland disorder in dogs and is an accumulation of saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland or duct and is surrounded by inflamed tissue. The most commonly affected glands are the mandibular and sublingual salivary glands.
When your dog`s body is invaded by viruses or bacteria, or your dog has a disease that triggers an immune response, the lymph nodes become enlarged as they work to fight off the invader. Swollen lymph nodes are called lymphadenopathy or lymphadenomegaly.
Causes of Swelling of the Salivary Gland in Dogs

A mucocele occurs when a salivary gland ruptures, leading to an accumulation of saliva in the soft tissue surrounding the damaged gland. This most commonly involves the sublingual and mandibular glands, which results in saliva accumulating in or around the neck and jaw.

Most Common Bumps and Lumps on Puppies

The most common types of lumps or bumps found on puppies are warts, skin tags, button tumors, and abscesses. In these cases, your vet may recommend a wart ointment or other skin treatment. There are also some products that claim to help dissolve normal fatty skin lumps on dogs.

Treatment. Various medications including steroids, anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, anti-parasitics, and even chemotherapy may be recommended depending on the reason for the lymph node enlargement. Surgery or radiation are other treatment possibilities, especially for low-grade, localized lymphomas.
Drink lots of water and use sugar-free lemon drops to increase the flow of saliva and reduce swelling. Massaging the gland with heat. Using warm compresses on the inflamed gland.
For example, the submandibular lymph nodes are located at the part of the dog`s neck that is near the jaw. However, salivary glands dwell in this area too, and they can feel just like enlarged submandibular lymph nodes.
Submandibular glands — These two glands are located just under both sides of the lower jaw and carry saliva up to the floor of the mouth under the tongue.
The lesions can be ulcers, nodules (lumps), plaques, reddish patches, or areas of scaling and hair loss. Some dogs experience itching at the lesions. As cutaneous lymphoma progresses, the skin commonly becomes thickened, reddened, ulcerated, and may begin to ooze fluid.
The median age of dogs with lymphoma is 5 to 9 years old. There is no gender predilection, but Boxers, Basset Hounds, St. Bernards, Scottish Terriers, Golden Retrievers, Airedale Terriers, and Bulldogs are some of the most common breeds reported.
This is actually a completely normal structure. It`s called the incisive papilla and every dog has one, though some may be more prominent than others. The incisive papilla contributes to the dog`s intricate and exceptional sense of smell.
Chin whiskers – Also known as interramal whiskers, they grow from a mole under a dog`s chin. These moles are clusters of cells that “provide sensory and tactile information to the brain,” PetMD says. Chin whiskers help detect objects out of normal field of vision.
Officially Called an “Occiput”

This bony protuberance has an actual name: an “occiput.” It is a natural part of a dog`s anatomy and is there for a couple of reasons. Its primary purpose is to protect the bones of the dog`s skull and, in turn, his brain.

Sebaceous cysts can appear anywhere on your dog`s body. In very young dogs, sebaceous cysts will usually appear on the top of their heads. For dogs of all ages, the most common locations are the head, neck, chest, and upper limbs. Also, dogs can get a similar type of lump on the margin of their eyelid.
Swollen glands are usually a sign the body is fighting an infection. They usually get better by themselves in two to three weeks. Occasionally they can be a sign of more serious illness.
Swollen lymph glands are usually a sign of infection and tend to go down when you recover. However, they can sometimes have a more serious cause and may need to be seen by a doctor.
These are lymph nodes that are only present in some dogs and are situated on the muzzle. They can become enlarged due to reactivity or neoplasia like any other lymph node and are often confused with a mass or tooth root abscess. They most commonly become enlarged in young dogs, usually in association with teething.
Overview. The anal glands are a pair of small sacs that sit just inside the anus (bottom). They contain a strong-smelling liquid used for marking territory. Healthy anal glands empty naturally when a dog poos, but if this doesn`t happen, they can over fill and block.
Parotitis is a term used to describe parotid gland swelling. Your parotid glands are salivary glands located between your jaw and ear. Parotitis causes include viral and bacterial infections, salivary gland stones and dental problems. Treatments include antivirals, antibiotics, heat application and massage.
Parotid gland infections are rare but if you notice swelling in one of your cheeks, feel chills, or fever, you should seek professional treatment right away. Your healthcare professional can diagnose the issue and recommend the treatment necessary to heal your parotid gland.
Bacterial and Fungal Infections

Typically, the lymph nodes in dog`s throats become most swollen during this type of bacterial infection. Dogs have comparable Strep throat symptoms to human infections including difficulty swallowing, coughing, fever, pain and lethargy.

If the lump is caused by an infection, it may either clear up on its own as your body fights off the infection, or it may go away with some anti-inflammatory medications. If the infection has caused a collection of pus (an abscess) to form, it may go away, but it usually needs to be drained by a doctor.
Normal nodes are usually less than ½ inch (12 mm) across. This is the size of a pea or baked bean.

Relevant Questions and Answers :

the most relevant questions and answers related to your specific issue

ANSWER : A. It depends very much on the size and density of the bone and the size of the dog that swallowed it. Some bones will be small enough and dissolve enough to pass without incident but many large and stronger bones can become lodged and cause obstructions as they move through the gut. If he ate it very recently it may be worth discussing the size with your vet to see if they can remove it from his stomach before it causes an intestinal obstruction. Monitor very closely for any abdominal discomfort, colic or vomiting which would indicate a problem

Q. Our cat has enlarged kidneys. Antibiotics worked for awhile. He seems to be getting sick again. He tested negative for leukemia and feline aids.
ANSWER : A. At 1 year old I would be very anxious to find the cause of the kidney enlargement. Maybe you already know this, but kidney enlargement isn’t a disease on it’s own – it’s a sign of a disease. If FeLV and FIV have been ruled out I would recommend an ultrasound to actually visualize the kidneys and see if a cause for the enlargement can be determined. I’d be very worried about feline infectious peritonitis in this cat. It can be very difficult to diagnose, and if it’s not on your vet’s radar screen it should be.

Unfortunately this is a very concerning sign (the enlarged kidneys and returning illness) in a very young cat. FIP as well as congenital (present from birth) problems would be at the top of my list. If you want to consult more about exactly what’s been going on with him I’m available.

Q. 3 mo.old has enlarged glans behind her jaw bone
ANSWER : A. When tissues become inflamed, the regional lymph nodes that these tissues drain into will also become inflamed and swollen in response.In your pet it can be due to infection in his/her mouth, throat, ear or face.You should take your pet to your vets for examination and they will prescribe medication dependent on the underlying cause .

Q. I think my dog swallowed a ham bone and now he can’t poop. What should I do?
ANSWER : A. If he is having difficulty passing stools he could be impacted from a large volume of bone dust/gravel texture but I would be very cautious he may actually be obstructed from a single large piece of bone which can become a life-threatening emergency. If this is more than 48hours since he ate the bone he should be assessed by a vet as soon as possible as damage can rapidly occur to the gut lining. If he ate it yesterday some medical grade liquid parafin or cat laxative paste (1 tube) may help to lubricate and allow him to pass this nut it can complicate surgery if it does not work. My advise would be to get him examined and possibly x-rayed and your vet can then discuss the benefits and risks of both medical and surgical remedies

Q. My dog is a 14yr old Maltese/bichon.just diagnosed with an enlarged heart..cancer in 3 mamory glands & an enlarged uturus. I can not afford medicatio
ANSWER : A. Sounds like a bad situation if you cannot treat the issues. If she is suffering you may want to elect humane euthanasia. Otherwise you may want to see a specialist for both the enlarged heart and cancer to see the treatments, but if you cannot afford medications there is not much else you can do at this point. I am sorry you hear of those bad news things 🙁

Q. Teacup Chihuahua 8wks 2lbs what shots & flee med.
ANSWER : A. He/she should be vaccinated twice 3-4 weeks apart. She/he can have the first dose now. We usually vaccinate against 3, 4 or 5 diseases. Also, you need to get a good quality worming medication and use it on regular basis (every 3 weeks to start with then every 3-6 months). If you take your puppy to your vets they will be able to advise you about flea treatment (there are plenty of spot-on preparation which I would recommend you to use) and they will make vaccination and worming plan.

ANSWER : A. Bones are really bad for dogs. He definitely has an upset stomach. That should clear up. But you need to be careful that the bones don’t cause a blockage or perforation. It would be advisable to monitor closely and take to vets straight away if shows any other symptoms especially vomiting.

Q. Amy is a 4.5lb Morkie & is a Yr old. She ate a large bone until it was gone, she is pooping soft for 3 or 4 days. Her tush is so raw. Any advise.
ANSWER : A. You shouldn’t feed dogs bones as they can cause alot of health problems. Theres nothing you can do till she has pasted all the bone. In the mean time you need to watvh for signs of it causing an internal problem. Any signs of vomiting. Lethargy. Bloating. Generally unwell you need to see a vet asap as is an emergency.

Read Full Q/A … : Causes of Blood in Dog Stool