Experienced and professional animal trainer provide their insights in answering this question :
A. It doesn’t matter if she has already had kittens. The vet will give her a health check before she has an anaesthetic. It is better to get her spayed than have another litter of kittens.

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Our sources include academic articles, blog posts, and personal essays from experienced pet care professionals :

​Shouldn`t a female cat/dog have a litter before being spayed? Allowing a female cat or dog to produce a litter does not have any benefits to the animal. Animals who go through heat cycles and pregnancy are at higher risk for uterine and mammary problems, including mammary cancer, which can be fatal.
Getting your female cat spayed

When your cat is about four months old, she`ll start to attract the attention of tomcats, who`ll want to mate with her. This is why it`s important to have her spayed before she reaches four months, so she doesn`t get pregnant while she`s still a kitten herself.

While most veterinarians recommend spaying a cat between six and seven months of age, intact, mature cats can still be safely spayed. Cats can be spayed at any age, even as old as their late teens.
On average, cats reach reproductive maturity around 6 months old. However, cats can enter their first heat cycle and become pregnant as early as 4 months. Larger cat breeds tend to reach reproductive maturity much later, at around 10 months old.
It is not uncommon for unspayed cats to suffer from ovarian cysts and uterine infections due to constantly fluctuating hormone levels. Spaying your cat will reduce the risk of mammary cancer as she ages. Spaying your cat will not impact her ability to grow and does not cause your cat to get fat.
Your female pet will live a longer, healthier life.

Spaying prevents uterine infections and decreases the incidence of breast tumors, which are malignant or cancerous in about 50 percent of dogs and 90 percent of cats. Spaying your pet before her first heat offers the best protection from these diseases.

The skin at the surgery site will be shaved to ensure a fur-free sterile site and either an ovariectomy (removal of the ovaries) or ovariohysterectomy (removal of the ovaries and uterus) will be performed. This procedure permanently prevents a cat from being able to have kittens.
Is there a point where a cat is too old to be spayed or neutered? The honest answer is no. No matter what the age, with caution and preparation, even cats in their late teens can successfully be altered. In most every instance, the veterinarian will require blood work before doing surgery on a mature cat.
Do fixed cats go into heat? Once a female cat is spayed, she will no longer produce estrogen or have ovaries, which means she will no longer go into heat. While there may be some rare cases where remnants of ovarian tissue remain, causing some heat-like symptoms, this is not typical for a spayed cat.
DEAR RUBY: Cats do not undergo menopause, and a cat that has not been spayed will continue to be fertile and produce kittens throughout her life. Likewise, she will continue to have estrous cycles — known as going into heat — for her entire life. Most cats are capable of becoming mothers around the age of 6 months.
The cat gestation period (cat pregnancy length) is about 63-65 days on average, or about two months.
Even if your cat is to be kept as an `indoor cat`, it is kinder to neuter her, as she will still come into season, which is very frustrating for her and for you. Un-neuterd females are also more at risk of developing cystic ovaries and the potentially fatal pyometraMALE CATS – if you love them, get them neutered!
But cats that haven`t been spayed or neutered are much more desperate to get outdoors so they can find a mate—especially female cats when they`re in heat. Spaying or neutering your cat reduces their desire to escape, making it easier to keep your indoor cat safe and happy.
The impact of the anesthesia may cause your cat to act aggressive or agitated, so keep your distance and don`t handle him unless necessary. Keep your cat in a crate or small room to sleep, and make sure he is comfortable and secure.
A spaying procedure involves the removal of the uterus and ovaries in a queen`s reproductive biology, but in some cases a vet has failed to remove both ovaries.
Although neutering greatly reduces sexual interest, some experienced males may continue to be attracted to, and mate with females. Male urine odor is particularly strong and pungent.
It`s unlikely they experience the deep sensation of `falling in love` in the same way humans do. But they can certainly feel a very strong attachment or bond,” Buis told The Dodo.
In fact, research suggests that spaying has no impact at all on cats` parenting instincts! For current cat owners thinking of adding to their furry family, these instincts can often be highly beneficial in the acceptance of a new young kitten into the home.
Female animals (spay) have an incision made just below the belly button into the abdomen. The reproductive tract, both ovaries, and the uterus are completely removed through this incision. Then the incision is closed with two layers of stitches under the skin that will dissolve and be absorbed by body over time.
Cons For Spaying A Female Kitten:

This can lead to other health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart problems later in their adult life. Spaying your kitten means they will be sterilized so you will not be able to breed them later on if you wish to have more kittens.

How old is too old? If they are healthy, there is no age limit. Older females that are not spayed are at risk for a life threatening infection in their uterus following their heat cycle as well as breast cancer.
Both male and female cats can spray. Unneutered male cats are the most likely to mark. They also have the strongest smelling urine. About 5% of neutered females and 10% of neutered males continue urine marking after they`ve been fixed.
Spaying is an invasive operation that, when done on a cat, can cause scare and confusion and make her clingy. Pain medications you give to your cat after being spayed can also disorient your cat, making her overly attached to you.

Relevant Questions and Answers :

the most relevant questions and answers related to your specific issue

Q. Why do cats meow?
ANSWER : A. Cat parents often wish they could better understand what their favorite feline friends want or desire. A cat’s meow can be interpreted in many different ways and can indicate an array of feelings and needs. Here are some of the most common reasons for your cat’s vocalizations:

1. Greeting- Many cats will meow as a greeting when you enter your home or walk into a room. Cats will also meow at another cat or animal in the household to extend a hello and acknowledge the other animal’s presence.

2. Attention – An exuberant meow followed by leg rubbing or another attention seeking behavior may indicate your cat is looking for some quality time spent together. Some petting or rubbing behind the ears may be in order.

3. Hunger – A meowing cat is often a hungry cat. This is one of the most common reasons for a cat to vocalize to their owners. A cat will meow to get your attention at feeding times or even when they want extra food.

4. Sickness – A sick or hurt cat may begin to meow excessively, warranting a visit to the veterinarian. There are numerous reasons for a cat in distress to meow—whether it is related to an upset stomach, an injured leg or a urinary blockage. These meows should be carefully investigated.

5. Entering or leaving – Most cats will vocalize when they want to be let in or out of a room. You may notice when you are in the bathroom or behind the closed door of a room that your cat begins to meow, scratches at the door, and often reaches its paw under the door. This is a clear indication that the cat wants to be where you are.

6. Angry – An agitated cat may meow to warn their owner or another household pet that they are upset and would like to be left alone. This angry meow may increase in sound volume as the cat becomes more stressed or agitated. Often a cat will exhibit this type of meow at the veterinary office when they are unhappy with their examination or restraint.

Each feline is different and so are their vocalizations. Learn to understand the variety of meows your cat uses on a daily basis. This will help you develop a better relationship with your cat and help them live a more trusting and happier life.

Q. My cat is pooping outside of the litter bix. He is 2 1/2. He did this as a kitten. It stopped then started about 3 months ago. Litterbox is clean.
ANSWER : A. Inappropriate elimination or house soiling can be a frustrating problem but with a bit of detective work on your part, there is hope. First, before deciding that this is a behavioral issue, any medical problems (diarrhea, constipation, fecal incontinence, pain on defecation, etc.) need to be ruled out and/or treated. If your cat receives a clean bill of health from your vet but is still eliminating outside the litterbox, then we need to consider that something about the box itself might be aversive to your cat. Cats can be quite finicky about their litterbox and toileting habits. Below I have listed common recommendations and cat preferences for litterbox use. Review the list and make any changes that could account for your cat’s aversion to defecating in the litterbox:
* Soft, fine-grained clumping litter (vs, coarse-grained, non-clumping litter)
* Unscented
* 1 – 1 1/2 inch depth (especially older cats or cats with hip problems)
* Larger pans (especially for large cats) – want to get whole body inside – poop just outside the box might mean the box is too small
* Open, non-hooded
* At least one shallow side to get in and out easily
* Easy to get to – not hidden away, preferably in areas they spend time in or near – and not near appliances that make scary, unpredictable noises (washers, dryers, refrigerators)
* Scoop minimum 1X/day – preferably 2
* Clean the litterbox with soap and water and put in fresh scoopable litter at least once/month (instead of just continuously adding)
* Some cats prefer to urinate in one box and defecate in a separate box, so you may need 2 boxes even if you just have 1 cat. Multi-cat households should have 1 box/cat plus 1 extra.

Q. i believe my cat is pregnant but showing signs of being in heat
ANSWER : A. Cats are induced ovulators, meaning they will continue to go into heat until they are bred, or spayed (reproductive organs removed). If your cat is showing signs of being in heat (excessive yowling, presenting her rear to you for inspection, attempting to get out or other cats hanging near your house) and you don’t want kittens, it is best to have her spayed. Most cats are also semi-seasonal in their heat cycle meaning they will more likely be in heat through Spring-Summer than in Fall-Winter.

Pregnancy in cats lasts about 60 days. Signs of pregnancy may include weight gain, increased appetite, nipples that become pronounced or “leak” and seeking nesting areas to deliver kittens. If you saw that your cat was in heat, or had her mated, you can use the date she was bred to determine when she may be due for kittens. Your local vet can help determine if she is indeed pregnant and can also take an X-ray to determine the number of kittens present if your cat is nearing her due date. Be sure to feed mom a kitten formula in the last few weeks of her pregnancy and during nursing as it will help provide extra beneficial nutrients for both mom and babies.

If you do not want kittens, some very early term pregnancies can be aborted with spaying, otherwise spaying mom is usually done when kittens are weaned from their mom.

Q. I have a cat that defecates in the litter box but always urinates outside the box. It is very annoying.
ANSWER : A. Inappropriate elimination in cats is often a behavioral problem rather than a medical problem, so the first step is to have him seen by your vet to eliminate any kind of illness or condition as a cause for his eliminating outside the box.

If medical issues are ruled out, take a look at other reasons. Has there been a lot of unusual activity? Has you cat been left at home or boarded? Is the litterbox in a busy area? Has anything happened recently in this area to make him reluctant to use it again? Is there another cat, pet or person that is preventing him from getting to the box? Have you changed it from a hooded to an open box, or vice versa? Is it big enough? Have you changed the type or brand of litter? Is there something attractive about the spot he uses? Cats dislike disturbances to their routine and may act out to express their dissatisfaction.

The general rule is one litter box per cat in the household, plus one. That way each cat can have a place of their own to go in case the box is occupied or another cat has claimed it as territory. They should be scooped daily, if not more often and changed completely weekly, washed with soap and water only. You can offer one kind of litter in one box and another kind in another to see if there is a preference. I don’t recommend the crystals, it makes a hissing sound when wet that startles some cats and make them reluctant to use it again. The litter boxes should be located in a quiet, low-traffic area so that the cat can use them in peace. Make sure any other pets or people aren’t giving them a hard time around or in the litter box. It may take some investigation and experimentation to find your cat’s preference and accommodate him so that everyone is satisfied with the situation. And, when cleaning up pet accidents, don’t use any cleaner containing ammonia. This leaves behind a scent similar to urine.

Q. My cat will not stop going to the toilet on my carpet, bed, washing pile etc.. Also uses its litter box occasionally? I don’t understand why this is?
ANSWER : A. Inappropriate elimination in cats is often a behavioral problem rather than a medical problem, so the first step is to have him seen by your vet to eliminate any kind of illness or condition as a cause for his eliminating outside the box.
If medical issues are ruled out, take a look at other reasons. Has there been a lot of unusual activity? Has you cat been left at home or boarded? Is the litterbox in a busy area? Has anything happened recently in this area to make him reluctant to use it again? Is there another cat, pet or person that is preventing him from getting to the box? Have you changed it from a hooded to an open box, or vice versa? Is it big enough? Have you changed the type or brand of litter? Is there something attractive about the spot he uses? Cats dislike disturbances to their routine and may act out to express their dissatisfaction.
The general rule is one litter box per cat in the household, plus one. That way each cat can have a place of their own to go in case the box is occupied or another cat has claimed it as territory. They should be scooped daily, if not more often and changed completely weekly, washed with soap and water only. You can offer one kind of litter in one box and another kind in another to see if there is a preference. I don’t recommend the crystals, it makes a hissing sound when wet that startles some cats and make them reluctant to use it again. The litter boxes should be located in a quiet, low-traffic area so that the cat can use them in peace. Make sure any other pets or people aren’t giving them a hard time around or in the litter box. It may take some investigation and experimentation to find your cat’s preference and accommodate him so that everyone is satisfied with the situation. And, when cleaning up pet accidents, don’t use any cleaner containing ammonia. This leaves behind a scent similar to urine.

Q. I’m looking to get my cat spayed. I’m not sure how old she is but the previous owner said she’s had 2 litters of kittens already.
ANSWER : A. It doesn’t matter if she has already had kittens. The vet will give her a health check before she has an anaesthetic. It is better to get her spayed than have another litter of kittens.

Q. My cat seems to have lost control of her bowels and no longer uses her litter box even to urinate. She is 5 or 6 yrs and is in good health otherwise
ANSWER : A. If your cat has had a sudden change in litter box habits, it is always a good idea to rule out any underlying issues with a wellness check from your vet. Bringing in a urine and stool sample if possible can also help as tests can be run on these samples to check for common infections or parasites. If these are present, treating them usually helps resolve the problem of not using the box.

Loss of bowel control usually results in dribbling of feces or urine rather than complete accidents. If you are seeing this, it is possible that an injury to the hind end or problem with the nerves or muscles is happening and should be looked at by your vet.

If the accidents are complete (full amount of stool, big puddle of urine) your cat may be choosing not to use the litter box due to illness, a too-dirty litter, litter pans that are too tall (which may make older cats have a harder time getting in and out), or a litter substrate that was changed too suddenly. Sometimes, changing the environment your cat’s litter box is in by lowering the sides, moving food and water dishes away and returning back to a previously liked litter can help.

In any area of an accident, an enzymatic cleaner should be used. These break down urine and stool particles, making it so that your cat is less likely to be attracted to going there again. Moving stools to the litter box can also entice your cat to start going there again.

Q. Our cat of six years has on two separate occasions has defecated on the living room rug and recently pee’d on the skirt of the Christmas tree.
ANSWER : A. Inappropriate elimination in cats is often a behavioral problem rather than a medical problem, so the first step is to have him seen by your vet to eliminate any kind of illness or condition as a cause for his eliminating outside the box.

If medical issues are ruled out, take a look at other reasons. Has there been a lot of unusual activity? Has you cat been left at home or boarded? Is the litterbox in a busy area? Has anything happened recently in this area to make him reluctant to use it again? Is there another cat, pet or person that is preventing him from getting to the box? Have you changed it from a hooded to an open box, or vice versa? Is it big enough? Have you changed the type or brand of litter? Is there something attractive about the spot he uses? Cats dislike disturbances to their routine and may act out to express their dissatisfaction.

The general rule is one litter box per cat in the household, plus one. That way each cat can have a place of their own to go in case the box is occupied or another cat has claimed it as territory. They should be scooped daily, if not more often and changed completely weekly, washed with soap and water only. You can offer one kind of litter in one box and another kind in another to see if there is a preference. I don’t recommend the crystals, it makes a hissing sound when wet that startles some cats and make them reluctant to use it again. The litter boxes should be located in a quiet, low-traffic area so that the cat can use them in peace. Make sure any other pets or people aren’t giving them a hard time around or in the litter box. It may take some investigation and experimentation to find your cat’s preference and accommodate him so that everyone is satisfied with the situation. And, when cleaning up pet accidents, don’t use any cleaner containing ammonia. This leaves behind a scent similar to urine.