Experienced and professional animal trainer provide their insights in answering this question :
A. Dry patches or calluses on the nose are very common in pets and can occur if they enjoy digging outdoors or sometimes just digging around the house. They can appear as areas of minor hair loss where the nose meets the fur, and can also have a hardened, patchy appearance. These are normal and can sometimes come and go on their own.

However, if the patch appears to be spreading, or is bothersome, that is not typical of a callus. If the area is itchy, red or appears to have an open sore or wound, it may indicate an issue with the skin or a growth that is abnormal. Keeping the area clean and dry with a washcloth may help with minor irritation, while more serious or prolonged irritation should be looked at by your vet.

How to Identify Common Pet Problems ?

Our sources include academic articles, blog posts, and personal essays from experienced pet care professionals :

Papillomas are benign, sometimes multiple, tumors caused by viruses. They are commonly known as warts. The tumors often disappear spontaneously because the animal slowly develops immunity to them. Some papillomas may need surgical removal if they become inflamed or infected or fail to regress over time.
These growths are typically benign, or non-cancerous, and can occur in any bodily location on your pet. The most common locations you would find papillomatosis growths would be around the eyes, mouth and nose, due to the increased moisture and potential for transference of viral cells to these areas.
Papillomas, also known as dog warts, are small growths caused by a viral infection that grows outwards and have a lumpy surface, often resembling small cauliflowers. They typically appear as a cluster of multiple growths, although single growths are possible.
Symptoms of Wart Virus in Dogs

Warts are most commonly seen in the mouth, nose or eyes, but skin warts can show up around the footpads, legs or groin area.

Filiform warts

They protrude out of the skin with a spiky, bristly appearance. They can be flesh-toned, pink, or darker than surrounding skin. Filiform warts are often found around the mouth, nose, or eyes. If they occur in an eye crease or other type of skin fold they can cause itching or discomfort. See a doctor.

Warts on dogs often look like a small head of cauliflower, but other, rarer types do exist, including an inverted papilloma (usually a firm lump with a dot in the middle) and dark, scaly plaques of skin that have an irregular surface.
If you notice that your cat has scabs, you should always contact the veterinarian. Scabs can be a sign of something serious, including skin cancer or infections. If you notice that your cat is bleeding, you should go to the vet immediately.
Nasal polyps are benign (non-cancerous) fleshy growths that develop in the nasal passages of cats. In addition to the nasal passages, similar polyps can occur in the area above the soft palate (the roof of the mouth) or within the ear canal. Nasal polyps originate from the cells that line the nasal passages.
Do not use home remedies for dog warts like apple cider vinegar. The high acidity can cause a chemical burn that would be extremely painful for your dog. Ignore any internet advice that tells you this is a good solution. Even diluted, there is no reason to believe that ACV is a good or effective option.
A typical canine wart looks like a small cauliflower head. It has a stalk leading to a rough textured growth. Sometimes the lesions are hard scaly plaques; others can be hard inward growing masses. They are commonly found on the dog`s face, but can be found on the neck, feet or anywhere else on the body.
Canine viral papillomas require no specific treatment. They will regress on their own in a few weeks to months. Since they`re considered a significant nuisance by many dog parents, many treatments have been tried — most to no avail. Antiviral drugs and surgery may do more harm than good.
The canine papilloma virus falls in this category. Highly contagious, COPV most commonly appears in young dogs and, sometimes, in senior dogs due to immune systems that are not as fully developed or robust as in healthy adult dogs between the ages of two to seven.
A fibrous papule is a spot on the nose that people get in early to mid adult life. A fibrous papule may measures between 1mm to 5mm in diameter. A fibrous papule is usually firm and like a small dome but occasionally can stick out a little more, much like a small wart or skin tag.
Papillomas are benign epithelial tumors that grow outward in fingerlike projections in the nose. In inverted papillomas, these projections grow inward and into the underlying bone. These tumors are locally aggressive, often recur, and can become malignant (cancerous).
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection

HPV has been found in some cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, but because these cancers are rare, more research is needed to show that HPV infection causes them.

Although warts are usually harmless unless they get knocked or infected, occasionally, they can progress to a form of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which requires treatment. It isn`t possible to tell whether a dog wart has become cancerous without performing further investigations.
Treatment for dog warts usually isn`t necessary. They typically disappear once your pet`s immune system builds a defense against the virus. This process may take five months or longer, so don`t expect the warts to disappear as quickly as they emerged.
A dead giveaway that your cat has ringworm are round bald patches that expose scaly pink sores. You`re most likely to notice these infected spots on the face, ears, tail, and feet.
The lump under the skin of a cat infested with a botfly larva is called a warble. In order to get rid of it, you`ll need to make an appointment with your veterinarian. He or she can remove the botfly larva and recommend any follow up care that might be needed to ensure that your cat heals uneventfully.
Use soft tissues or moisturized wipes to clean off any discharge and debris. If there are dried-on crusts, use a warm compress—like a warm, wet washcloth—and gently compress the nose briefly first to loosen up the hardened material, then wipe it away.
Feline miliary dermatitis is a term used to describe a skin condition in cats that most commonly results from an allergic reaction. The term `miliary` is derived from the word milium, which is Latin for `millet`, as the small, crusted lesions of miliary dermatitis resemble millet seeds.
Nasal aspergillosis is divided into two forms. In cats, the less common form is called sino-nasal aspergillosis (SNA), meaning that the fungus destroys the delicate bones of the sinuses. This creates an accumulation of mucous and fungus commonly referred to as a `fungal ball` or aspergilloma.
A cat`s nose has a unique pattern of bumps and ridges that mean each one is different, just like a human fingerprint. Don`t try taking a `nose print` of your cat though, it`ll get very messy! Cats have 200 million scent receptors in their noses, more than most breeds of dog, so they are very sensitive to strong smells.
Most pets with nasal tumors have a nasal discharge (usually pus-like or streaked with blood) from one or both nostrils, noisy breathing (from airflow obstruction), coughing, lethargy, decreased appetite, and weight loss. Some pets, especially cats, will develop facial deformities as the tumor grows.

Relevant Questions and Answers :

the most relevant questions and answers related to your specific issue

Q. My 11 year old Chi has these ridges across his nose that are hard and dry sort of look like a wart, should I worry?
ANSWER : A. Dry patches or calluses on the nose are very common in pets and can occur if they enjoy digging outdoors or sometimes just digging around the house. They can appear as areas of minor hair loss where the nose meets the fur, and can also have a hardened, patchy appearance. These are normal and can sometimes come and go on their own.

However, if the patch appears to be spreading, or is bothersome, that is not typical of a callus. If the area is itchy, red or appears to have an open sore or wound, it may indicate an issue with the skin or a growth that is abnormal. Keeping the area clean and dry with a washcloth may help with minor irritation, while more serious or prolonged irritation should be looked at by your vet.

Q. My cats nose is stopped up on antibiotics. She has a loss of appetite, acting normal though. Is 3 ounces of can food enough in 24h? 9 pound cat
ANSWER : A. Cats with stopped up noses tend to eat much less, as you’ve noted, because they can’t smell their food as well. And the smell of food is pretty important to a cat’s appetite. You can start by warming up the food in a microwave – not too hot, test it yourself by putting your finger right in the center, as the temperature of microwave food can vary – as this will intensify the smell and hopefully make your cat more interested.

Saline nose drops, like those that are used on little kids, are safe to use on a cat to clean the discharge that is dried around and in the nose. There’s a brand called Little Noses that’s available in the U.S. That I like. You can put it on a q-tip and try to remove the debris. Humidifying the air with a humidifier can help as well, or you can put the cat in the bathroom and run the shower enough to generate steam. Don’t use “real” nose drops like Neo-synephrine or anything else like that – cats quickly build up resistance to them.

A 3 oz can of food is an OK amount in 24 hours, but do try the techniques above to help your cat get more interested in food. You might also try some baby food – no garlic or onions in the ingredients – as cats usually really like the taste of it.

Q. I have a 13 1/2 year old Shih Tzu. How old is he in dog years?
ANSWER : A. It’s used to be that dog years were 7 years to every 1. Now it normally around 5 years to every year as long as your dog is healthy and kept up with vaccines. So he’s about 68ish in dog years.

Read Full Q/A … : Shih Tzu Age

Q. My 10 year old maltiase has several (look like white warts) on his body, when groomed they are being aggravated. What are they and how to cure them.
ANSWER : A. In older dogs warts are not at all unusual. Have them checked by your vet to make sure they are just warts, but, short of surgical removal, there’s not much to be done about them. If your dog needs an anesthetic procedure done, such as a dental cleaning, your vet can remove the warts at the same time. The warts alone generally aren’t worth risking anesthesia on your dog.

Q. Does an indoor cat need to be vaccinated every year?
ANSWER : A. In practice, I recommend a feline combo vaccine every year, but will generally start administering every 3 years once they have had their kitten vaccines and 2 additional yearly vaccines. Rabies, is required yearly by law, and if kept up to date can be good for up to three years also. Based on the age of your cat I would give a yearly feline combo and rabies, and then boost the combo again next year.

Q. What do whipworms in cats look like?
ANSWER : A. Whipworms are usually found upon inspection of the stool under a microscope as they can be hard to see macroscopically. Worms that are more common to see in the stool are roundworms (long spaghetti-like strands) and tapeworms (small rice-grain segments). However in large infestations they can appear as long, skinny, hair-like worms that are white or pinkish in color. Whipworms have a characteristic egg shape (they look like little footballs with knobs on the end) when looked at under a microscope and this is usually the way your vet determines if an infection is present.

If you think your cat may have internal parasites, bringing in a sample of his stool to your vet for a fecal exam is best. Your vet can then provide you with the correct worm type present and right type of dewormer to give.

Q. Rescued a dog almost two weeks ago, and now that her kennel cough is gone her personality shines!! No previous training, how should I start?

After your dog is familiar with the behavior you lured from scratch, and taught to your dog, you can start to use the “no-reward marker” I talked about. What you do is ask the dog to perform the behavior, and if the dog does not perform the behavior, you simply say your no-reward marker (choose one: eh-eh, hey, uh-oh, oops) show them the treat, put it behind your back, and BRIEFLY ignore your dog. Just turn your back for a second or two, before turning back to your dog and saying, “let’s try that again.” When you’re ready to start over with your dog, make sure you move around. If you are repeating the same cue while in the same position, while your dog is in the same position, you are likely to receive the same results. The more you move around, and start fresh, the better your chances are of having your dog listen to your cue the second time around. BIG rewards when they dog it successfully! Lots of praise and treats.

My no-reward marker is “hey.” When my dog does something wrong I say, “hey” and she immediately understands that she needs to offer a different behavior. This is clear to her. I don’t have to say it in a mean way, I simply say, “hey” in a normal tone of voice and she understands what the word means.

Once you’ve built up that connection and communication with your new dog, you can work on all kinds of fun behaviors! I personally enjoy the more zen-like behaviors: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ruy9UMcuGh8

I like to teach my dog fun tricks that offer her a “job” to do of sorts like object retrieval: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4iertZSva8

(object retrieval training completed; what it looks like: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jx0Dml28FGY)

Scent-games are fun too! Very confidence building. Hide a REALLY smelly treat in a box, and place that box in a line of boxes. Let your dog go in the room while saying something like “search!” or “find it!” and watch them hunt for that smelly treat! Lots of rewards when they find it!

Q. I have a 10 year old pug overweight with dry skin and a 5 year old Yorkie with dry skin…..please advise me the very best dry dog food that. Can give
ANSWER : A. I am very partial to the foods made by Royal Canin. They do a lot of research on nutrition, and their foods have very high quality ingredients. They make a food called Small Breed which would be ideal for both a pug and a Yorkie. You can typically purchase that food from a vet, however they also make high quality diets that you can buy in stores like PetSmart. I’d also recommend purchasing a fish oil product that’s formulated for dogs. Dose according to label directions. The omega 3 fatty acids in fish oil is excellent for building healthy skin.