Experienced and professional animal trainer provide their insights in answering this question :
A. There is nothing you can do at home apart from clear away the discharge as you need to know what is causing the problem to be able to treat appropriately. If there are any breathing problems or the dog is very lethargic then you should see an emergency vet over the weekend, otherwise see your vet as soon as they open.

How to Identify Common Pet Problems ?

Our sources include academic articles, blog posts, and personal essays from experienced pet care professionals :

The use of a humidifier, a vaporizer, or the steam from a hot shower may help your dog breathe more easily. Gently wipe nasal discharge from your dog`s nostrils with a soft damp towel.
Home remedies to clear your dog`s sinuses include using a humidifier, flushing the sinuses with saline, using a nasal aspirator, or giving Benadryl. Be sure to ask your vet before administering any human over-the-counter medicines to your pup.
You should contact your veterinarian if you notice any one of the following symptoms: Unilateral (one-sided) nasal discharge. Green or blood-tinged nasal discharge, affecting one nostril or both. Accompanying symptoms of a runny nose in dogs such as coughing, lethargy or anorexia (loss of appetite)
If the nasal discharge is clear, it may be a sign of a seasonal allergy or a reaction to the heat. However, if nasal discharge is discolored, bloody, or has pus in it, you should take your dog to the vet. In some cases, a dog`s runny nose may point to an infection, something lodged in the nasal cavity, or illness.
The symptoms should clear up within two weeks and your dog`s health return to normal. To learn more about canine sinus infections and get advice from an in-house vet, visit Nose and Sinus Inflammation in Dogs .
A saline-filled syringe is then placed into one nares and saline (suggest 5 ml in cat and small dog, 20 ml in medium/large dog) is flushed `vigorously` through the nasal cavity. The procedure can be repeated multiple times on each side.
Echinacea is an antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory herb. Studies have shown that echinacea contains active antiviral and immune boosting substance that help to reduce pain and inflammation, a perfect combination for a sinus infection. It is best to take an echinacea supplement at the first sign of illness.
Nasal infections and other upper respiratory infections affect brachycephalic (flat-faced) dogs more than others. Some of these dogs include Shih Tzus, Pugs, French or English Bulldogs, Boston Terriers, and Pekingese. Nasal discharge is a common condition in dogs, and may not be a condition at all.
Chronic nasal discharge and sneezing are common clinical complaints in dogs. The most common causes include neoplasia, aspergillosis, nasal foreign body, rhinitis secondary to dental disease, and idiopathic or inflammatory rhinitis.
Most sinus infections last from a couple of days to a few weeks and are not a serious medical concern, but if left untreated, sinusitis can lead to further complications. These include nasal polyps, a deviated septum and serious allergies.
Ongoing (chronic) inflammation of tissues in the nasal passages caused by pet allergy can obstruct the hollow cavities connected to your nasal passages (sinuses). These obstructions may make you more likely to develop bacterial infections of the sinuses, such as sinusitis.
Viral infections are spread the same way as bacterial infections. The difference is that the viral infection will start to improve after 5 to 7 days of the initial onset of the symptoms. There is no one definitive way for a doctor to determine if you have a bacterial or viral sinus infection based on symptoms alone.
Try using a medicine that thins mucus and improves sinus drainage (mucolytic). Guaifenesin is a commonly used mucolytic. Mucolytics are often combined with other medicines such as cough suppressants. Acetaminophen can be found in many forms and comes in different doses.
Steam can help break up blockages in a nasal passage. There are a few options for those who want to treat their sinus infections with steam. The most basic would be spending more time in a warm shower or bath. Many sufferers choose to use a steam pot or steam machine.
Certain natural substances have antibacterial properties, including garlic, ginger, and honey. While these may be of benefit as part of a balanced diet, they are not a replacement for prescription medication.
“If you notice that only one side of your dog`s nose is dry and crusty, it could be due to a foreign object lodged in the nostril. It`s essential to seek veterinary care immediately to remove the object and prevent further damage.” — Dr. Samantha Lee, DVM.
Sinusitis means infection or inflammation of the sinuses, which are air-filled spaces inside the bones of the face. Symptoms include yellow or green-coloured mucus draining from the nose, facial pain and headache.
Dogs that have bacterial pneumonia usually have a high fever, difficulty breathing, decreased exercise tolerance (tire easily), are lethargic, and/or have a cough. Other signs that may be present include a nasal discharge, loud breathing, rapid breathing, weight loss, anorexia, and dehydration.
An infection of the sinus cavity close to the brain can be life threatening, if not treated. In rare cases, it can spread to the brain. Normal sinuses are lined with a thin layer of mucus that traps dust, germs and other particles in the air.
See a doctor if you have: Severe symptoms, such as severe headache or facial pain. Symptoms that get worse after improving. Symptoms lasting more than 10 days without getting better.
Rhinitis is defined as inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose. In dogs and cats, it may be acute or chronic and may have a viral, bacterial, or allergic cause. Sinusitis is usually associated with diseases of the nasal cavity but is most often related to fungal infiltrates in the sinus itself.
When people with allergies or polyps in their nose or those with allergy-induced nasal gums go out with wet hair, the risk of developing sinusitis increases because the person`s nasal mucosa swells allergic during the hot-cold exchange and the sinuses` holes are easily closed.

Relevant Questions and Answers :

the most relevant questions and answers related to your specific issue

Q. My 14yr mim Shih Tzu has a sinus infection with discharge one side, what can I do till I get him into the vets?
ANSWER : A. There is nothing you can do at home apart from clear away the discharge as you need to know what is causing the problem to be able to treat appropriately. If there are any breathing problems or the dog is very lethargic then you should see an emergency vet over the weekend, otherwise see your vet as soon as they open.

Read Full Q/A … : Vetinfo

Q. My cat is excessively scrstching herself., to the point she has sores. She is strictly an indoor cat. Did have flees been treated for 2 months
ANSWER : A. For every flea you see on your pet, there are 100 more in the environment. Get your pet on a good topical or oral flea control through your vet. In flea control, you get what you pay for. Consider asking your vet for a dose of Capstar. It helps get the problem under control by killing the fleas on the pet starting in five minutes but only lasts for 24 hours.

You need to treat your home environment. If you use a pest control service, tell them you are having a flea problem and they can adjust their treatment. Use a premise spray that also contains an IGR, insect growth regulator. This keeps eggs and larvae from maturing into adults and helps break the life cycle. Also, vacuum EVERY DAY, throwing out the bag or emptying the canister every time into an outside receptacle and spraying the contents with insecticide to kill the fleas you’ve vacuumed up.

Treat your yard too, since fleas are opportunistic and will hop a ride into your home on your pant leg without you knowing it. Concentrate on areas under bushes, in the shade. Fleas are less likely to be located in open sunny areas where it gets hot.

If chemicals are a problem, you can use borax. Sprinkle it into rugs, into corners and under furniture, use a broom to work it into the fibers and let it sit for hours, days even. It won’t hurt you or your pet to have it present. Then vacuum it up, reapply as needed. Food grade diatomaceous earth can be gotten from a health food store and worked into the rugs and corners in the same way as borax. These treatments aren’t as fast and effective as chemical insecticides but they can help.

You might want to consider boarding your pet for the day at your vet, to give you the opportunity to flea bomb your house without having to worry about your pet being exposed. They can bathe your pet and give a dose of Capstar while you treat your home.

Be patient, you may have to repeat these steps multiple times 10-14 days apart to help break the flea life cycle.

Skin problems can have a variety of causes, sometimes more than one. It is important to have the problem checked by your vet to determine if there is a medical cause for your pet’s skin issues and treat accordingly.

In pets of all ages, fleas, food allergies and exposure to chemical irritants such as cleaners and soaps can be a cause. Any one of these may not be enough to trigger the breakouts, depending on how sensitive your pet is, but a combination can be enough to start the itch-scratch cycle. Finding out the cause and eliminating it is the best course of action. With flea allergies, if your pet is sensitive enough, a single bite can cause them to break out scratch enough to tear their skin.

Check for fleas with a flea comb. Look for fleas and/or tiny black granules, like coarse black pepper. This is flea feces, consisting of digested, dried blood. You may find tiny white particles, like salt, which are the flea eggs. Applying a good topical monthly flea treatment and aggressively treating your house and yard will help break the flea life cycle.

If you use plastic bowls, this is a possible cause for hair loss, though this tends to be on the chin, where their skin touches the bowl while they eat. If you suspect this to be the culprit, try changing the bowls to glass, metal or ceramic.

Food allergies are often caused by sensitivity to a protein in the food. Hill’s Science Diet offers some non-prescription options for sensitive skin as well as prescription hypoallergenic foods for more severe cases. Royal Canin carries limited protein diets that may also offer some relief. Your vet can recommend a specific diet that will help.

If there is no relief or not enough, consider getting your pet checked by a veterinary dermatologist and having allergy testing done.

Q. One of my pet’s ears seems very irritated. What I can use to clean it with?
ANSWER : A. Ear Irritation can be caused by a number of things ranging from allergies, ear infections or even mites. Dirty ears can also cause irritation and problems. Knowing the type of problem is best for figuring out how to treat it.

For plain dirty ears that do not have any odor, redness or leakage of discharge/debris, a simple over the counter canine ear cleaner can be used. Gently soak some cotton balls or a washcloth with the cleaner, and then use these to wipe out the flap of the ear and opening to the ear. Do NOT use Q-tips as these can become stuck or lodged in the curve of the ear canal and may cause injury to the ear drum.

If the ear is bright red or itchy without any dirt or debris in it, it may indicate an allergy. Sometimes an allergy medication can help provide relief in this situation. Your vet can give you the correct dosages of an over the counter allergy medication to use, or may recommend one specifically for dogs.

For infections and mites, changes to the ear such as bad smell or lots of debris and discharge, flecks of black or brown debris, or scabs and sores in the ear may be present. In these cases, it is best to have your vet take a sample of the ear debris to test for mites or infection. Your vet can then give you an ointment that is placed and left in the ear between ear cleanings. Most vets will then recommend cleaning the ears twice daily and then leaving in the ointment after for a period of ten days.

Ear mites ARE contagious to other pets, so if your dog does have them, it is best to treat any other pets in the house at the same time to prevent the mites from spreading around continuously.

Q. Our 14 week old kitten sounds like she has a stuffy nose. Do cats get sinus infections?
ANSWER : A. No sinuses in cats are very small compared to humans and they hardly ever get infected. Your kitten is more likely to have upper airways infection – if he/she has green discharge from the nose or eyes, has breathing difficulties or is not eating you should take him/her to your vets to get treatment.

Q. I have a cat with that virur (aids) could u tell me about her disposition and care
ANSWER : A. Thanks for your question.

Unfortunately the discussion about what you asked has no straightforward answers and can be quite complex.

First thing that I would double check, considering that your cat is very young, is whether she is really infected. It is important to remember that kittens born to FIV-infected queens will receive antibodies from the queen via the milk, and so will test positive early in life though they may not be infected. Kittens with a positive test result should always be retested when they are 5-6 months of age.

Many FIV infected cats are able to live happily with the virus for a long period of time, and indeed the virus will not necessarily ever cause clinical disease.

Different factors will influence the onset of disease in your cat including:

– The ”subtype” of FIV your cat is infected with,

– Her immune response

– The presence or absence of other infectious agents.

To maintain a good quality of life for your cat, I will give you these general guidelines, but you will then find certainly helpful to speak with your veterinarian for specific cases.

– Some antiviral medications used in human patients with HIV infection have also been shown to help some cats with FIV infection. Interferons may have anti-viral effects and modify immune responses. A recombinant feline interferon (feline interferon omega) is available in some countries. Down side is the cost usually.

– Keep your cat away from other cats and possible source of infections;

– Maintain good quality nutrition;

– Keep your cat indoor if possible regularly checked by your veterinarian;

– Keep your cat away from non-infected cats.

Q. My dog doesn’t eat, what should I do?
ANSWER : A. If this is a puppy, see a veterinarian immediately. Puppies should want to eat. Common causes for anorexia in puppies include viruses (parvo is a big one), parasitism, and foreign bodies. They need immediate care – go to an emergency vet if yours isn’t open. Puppies can get low blood sugar and dehydration very quickly.

If this is an adult dog and you observe other concerning signs, such as diarrhea or decreased energy, you should see a veterinarian.

If the dog seems otherwise bright and stable, try offering different types of food: wet food, canned tripe, or cooked chicken and rice. Some dogs will go for canned baby food: chicken, turkey, or beef as the main ingredient. Make sure there are no garlic or onions in the ingredients!

Causes of anorexia in adult dogs can range from less serious to severe. Younger dogs are more likely to get into trouble- they tend to eat things they shouldn’t, and can get foreign bodies from eating things like socks, or stomach upset from getting in the trash. Any dog may stop eating due to stress, or just being a picky eater. Middle aged dogs can stop eating when they’re stressed and also have Addison’s disease, which can be fatal. Older dogs tend to stop eating when they develop cancer or renal disease.

There is no one-size-fits-all recipe to know when the right time is to take your dog to the vet. The moral of this story is, if it’s not getting better, your pup feels bad, or you’re worried – go see the vet!

Read Full Q/A … : My Dog Won’t Eat

Q. Is it possible that fleas can be transmitters of ringworm among cats?
ANSWER : A. Not likely. Ringworm is a highly contagious fungal infection that is readily transmitted from any contact with an infected animal. A person can transmit it on their hands or clothes from handling the infected cat and then touching another. Spores can reside in the home on any surface and without proper disinfection, one cat can get it just from being in contact with that surface. It is not uncommon for every cat in a household to eventually get ringworm if one is not extremely careful with handling the cats and isolating any infected one.

Q. Dewey has open gash on rear hind leg; not bleeding, but very raw. What can I use to help heal wound?
ANSWER : A. Even if the wound is not actively bleeding, if it is very large (more than an inch or two) or you can visibly see tissue or bone underneath it, it is best to seek veterinary care. Your vet will likely recommend suturing up the wound to prevent infection and other debris from getting inside and taking hold. In larger wounds, antibiotics may also be given preemptively, or a temporary drain placed to keep bacteria from sitting under the skin.

If the wound is small and minor, keeping it clean and dry is the best for preventing infection. A clean warm wet washcloth can be used to clean out any dirt or debris, and then lightly dried with a dry washcloth. Do not attempt to place any over the counter medications unless instructed by your vet as many can be toxic. Keeping your dog from licking or chewing at the wound will also help prevent an infection. Signs of infection to look out for include discoloration, pain, swelling, redness or discharge that is green or yellowish in color. If you see these signs, making an appointment with your vet is best.