Experienced and professional animal trainer provide their insights in answering this question :
A. He must be seen and assessed fully by a vet as soon as possible. Urinary tract infections can cause significant discomfort and confusion and the associated fever can result in reduced appetite. An infection should be ruled out as soon as possible; bloods and urinalysis may be required

How to Identify Common Pet Problems ?

Our sources include academic articles, blog posts, and personal essays from experienced pet care professionals :

Regardless of age, some pets will pace when anxious. Sudden or severe stress in their environment, most commonly related to storms or loud noises (like fireworks), can lead to pacing behavior. Pain or distress. Pets who experience pain (especially sudden pain), may engage in pacing behavior.
Cognitive decline – As in humans, cognitive function tends to worsen as dogs age. Confusion, anxiety, and sleep disturbances increase as cognitive abilities decrease, which can lead to pacing, particularly at night. Pacing is one of the repetitive behaviors common in cognitive issues.
Dogs that aren`t feeling well may appear restless. Because they are in discomfort or even in distress, they may pace about your home or not sleep well at night. Dogs, for example, that are suffering with a life-threatening condition called bloat may appear agitated, uncomfortable and restless.
Historically, a dog`s paranoid-like symptoms come from a specific trigger – think about how dogs get scared in thunderstorms, with loud noises, or with certain kinds of people. A lot of dog paranoia and fear can come from past experiences, abuse, shelter environments, life on the street, and more.
Wincing, Whining or Crying

All three of these actions indicate an injury or some kind of pain your dog is experiencing. If you start to pet your dog and they shy away from your hand or whine, you know there is something wrong.

Sometimes pacing at night means that your dog is uncomfortable. Senior dogs will pace at night with cognitive dysfunction, causing disorientation and confusion. Dogs can also start pacing if their routine has changed and they feel nervous. They can also have trouble sleeping if they are sick or injured.
What does pacing mean in dogs? Dogs can pace because they are stressed, painful, or anxious. However, they can also pace because due to other conditions, often affecting the brain, so speak to your veterinarian if you are concerned.
Symptoms of cognitive dysfunction in dogs

Examples of behavioural changes include a `confused` dog that appears disorientated or lost in familiar surroundings, dogs wandering around aimlessly, and perhaps appearing to `forget` to back out of corners.

Dogs, like people, can have mental health concerns such as anxiety and stress. It`s possible that your dog is anxious if he starts trembling and acting abnormally during a fireworks show or a rainstorm.
It`s normal in dogs. In popular terms, it`s called “the zoomies.” In technical parlance, it`s Frenetic Random Activity Periods, or FRAP for short. It`s more common in puppies and young dogs, but even our old pals can get a case of the zoomies if the mood strikes.
Distraction can go a long way to help dogs cope with anxiety,” says Dr. McGowan. “By redirecting your dog`s attention away from the anxiety-inducing situation to something familiar and rewarding, the situation becomes positive and your dog builds confidence for coping with the same situation in the future,” she adds.
As with humans, exercise can be a great stress reducer. Physical activities like walking or playing fetch help both you and your dog release tension. It is also good to provide your dog with a safe place in the home where he can escape anxious situations. Everybody enjoys a calm place to retreat.
Some of the most common signs of illness in dogs include weight loss, lethargy, changes in social interaction, and a poor hair coat. So if your furry friend seems unwell, don`t hesitate to give your veterinarian a call. With early diagnosis and treatment, many health problems can be successfully managed.
An anxious and stressed dog will have an extremely difficult time falling asleep. Pacing and frequent repositioning will most likely occur, especially in older dogs. There are many reasons why your dog may feel anxious; perhaps a big change in the home or a medical issue that has drastically affected it`s life.
Sit quietly on a chair with your dog on the lead and a blanket on the floor. Drop tiny bite-size treats to your dog as a reward for settling down on the blanket. Don`t say anything to your dog while doing this. Gradually reward more relaxed behaviours.
Anxiety and Stress

Dogs who have anxiety issues often develop clingy dog behaviors. Interestingly, dogs can also become clingy if they sense our stress or anxiety. Dogs can also become clingy if you change their daily routine or make changes in the home or household that cause them stress.

The last few days before your dog passes you may notice: extreme weight loss, a distant look in their eyes, a lack of interest in anything, restlessness or unusual stillness, a change in the way that your dog smells, and a changed temperament.
Dementia in dogs has three stages of symptoms—mild, moderate, and severe. There are typical patterns that appear within each stage. However, it`s important to note that not every dog follows these exact patterns or stages.
Brain changes can occur sooner in life and more frequently than generally believed. Senior pets may become less interactive and playful. They may be more confused and may revert to house soiling behaviors like a puppy.
Most dogs assume a neutral or submissive role toward people, but some dogs will challenge their owners for dominance. A dominant dog may stare, bark, growl, snap, or even bite when you give him a command or ask him to give up a toy, treat, or resting place.
Unfortunately some dog trainers – including famous ones – have spread the idea that you should not comfort a fearful dog because it will reinforce the fear and make things worse. This is a myth. In fact, you are a secure base for your dog – meaning your presence can help them in a stressful situation.
An angry or very unhappy dog

Dog is standing with a stiffened body posture, weight forward, ears are up, hair raised, eyes looking at you – pupils dark and enlarged – tail is up and stiff, wrinkled nose. 2. Dog is lying down cowering, ears flat, teeth showing, tail down between legs.

Relevant Questions and Answers :

the most relevant questions and answers related to your specific issue

Q. Whenever I take my dog on walks he always barks at people and others dogs in my neighborhood. What should I do to resolve the problem
ANSWER : A. The very first thing to do is to make sure your dog is getting sufficient physical and mental exercise every day. A tired dog is a good, happy dog and one who is less likely to bark from boredom or frustration. Depending on his breed, age, and health, your dog may require several long walks as well as a good game of chasing the ball and playing with some interactive toys.

Figure out what he gets out of barking and remove it. Don’t give your dog the opportunity to continue the barking behavior.

Ignore your dog’s barking for as long as it takes him to stop. That means don’t give him attention at all while he’s barking. Your attention only rewards him for being noisy. Don’t talk to, don’t touch, or even look at him. When he finally quiets, even to take a breath, reward him with a treat. To be successful with this method, you must wait as long as it takes for him to stop barking. Yelling at him is the equivalent of barking with him.

Get your dog accustomed to whatever causes him to bark. Start with whatever makes him bark at a distance. It must be far enough away that he doesn’t bark when he sees it. Feed him lots of good treats. Move the stimulus a little closer (perhaps as little as a few inches or a few feet to start) and feed treats. If the stimulus moves out of sight, stop giving your dog treats. You want your dog to learn that the appearance of the stimulus leads to good things.

Teach your dog the ‘quiet’ command. Oddly, the first step is to teach your dog to bark on command. Give your dog the command to “speak,” wait for him to bark two or three times, and then stick a tasty treat in front of his nose. When he stops barking to sniff the treat, praise him and give him the treat. Repeat until he starts barking as soon as you say “speak.” Once your dog can reliably bark on command, teach him the “quiet” command. In a calm environment with no distractions, tell him to “speak.” When he starts barking, say “quiet” and stick a treat in front of his nose. Praise him for being quiet and give him the treat.

As in all training, always end training on a good note, even if it is just for obeying something very simple, like the ‘sit’ command. If you dog regresses in training, go back to the last thing he did successfully and reinforce that before moving on again. Keep sessions short, 15-20 minutes max, and do this several times a day.

Q. Rescued a dog almost two weeks ago, and now that her kennel cough is gone her personality shines!! No previous training, how should I start?
ANSWER : A. POST FOUR:

After your dog is familiar with the behavior you lured from scratch, and taught to your dog, you can start to use the “no-reward marker” I talked about. What you do is ask the dog to perform the behavior, and if the dog does not perform the behavior, you simply say your no-reward marker (choose one: eh-eh, hey, uh-oh, oops) show them the treat, put it behind your back, and BRIEFLY ignore your dog. Just turn your back for a second or two, before turning back to your dog and saying, “let’s try that again.” When you’re ready to start over with your dog, make sure you move around. If you are repeating the same cue while in the same position, while your dog is in the same position, you are likely to receive the same results. The more you move around, and start fresh, the better your chances are of having your dog listen to your cue the second time around. BIG rewards when they dog it successfully! Lots of praise and treats.

My no-reward marker is “hey.” When my dog does something wrong I say, “hey” and she immediately understands that she needs to offer a different behavior. This is clear to her. I don’t have to say it in a mean way, I simply say, “hey” in a normal tone of voice and she understands what the word means.

Once you’ve built up that connection and communication with your new dog, you can work on all kinds of fun behaviors! I personally enjoy the more zen-like behaviors: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ruy9UMcuGh8

I like to teach my dog fun tricks that offer her a “job” to do of sorts like object retrieval: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4iertZSva8

(object retrieval training completed; what it looks like: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jx0Dml28FGY)

Scent-games are fun too! Very confidence building. Hide a REALLY smelly treat in a box, and place that box in a line of boxes. Let your dog go in the room while saying something like “search!” or “find it!” and watch them hunt for that smelly treat! Lots of rewards when they find it!

Q. How do I determine how much my overweight pet should weigh?
ANSWER : A. There are many tools to determine overweight and obesity levels in pets. A new tool, morphometric measurements and body fat index, are available to accurately determine a pet’s ideal weight; this will allow an accurate determination of the amount of food a pet should receive to achieve weight loss. Feeding the correct amount will lead to greater weight loss success.

There are many weight loss food options to help pets reach their ideal weight. Your veterinarian can help make a ideal weight recommendation. Here are some tips to help your dog lose weight in a healthy and safe way:

1. Diet: Providing a healthy and well balanced diet is essential to your pet’s overall health. Finding the right food for your dog can be a challenging process. For those overweight animals many commercial dog companies offer weight loss diets, but it is important to evaluate food labels for adequate nutritional content.

You want to ensure you are not missing other essential vitamin or mineral content. Volume of food is also important and the amount of food that works for one breed of dog may not be the same for another breed of dog. Portion control as opposed to free-choice feeding can help your dog to drop a few unnecessary pounds.

There are also prescription weight loss foods designed by veterinary nutritionists, such as Hill’s r/d (http://bit.ly/1AoENSd). Some pet owners find that home cooking is the best option for helping to provide a well-balanced and realistic diet plan. There are websites such as balanceit.com that offers recipes to fit your dog’s specific needs. Consulting with your veterinarian or a veterinary nutritionist to find the appropriate diet is a great way to help your dog be as healthy as possible.

2. Exercise: Another great tactic for weight loss for your dog is exercise. Whether this is through running, walking or playing with a favorite toy all of these are wonderful types of exercise to help keep your dog at a lean and healthy weight.

For those pet owners with busy schedules utilizing professional dog walking services or playtime through dog daycare services is another option. It has been shown that those pet owners that exercise regularly with their pets generally live a healthier lifestyle.

3. Physical therapy: As animals age pet owners offer encounter their favorite canine having more difficulty walking and have a dwindling desire to play with toys. Physical therapy, specifically hydrotherapy is a wonderful way to help older and arthritic animals gain more mobility and lose weight. Hydrotherapy has been proven to have several therapeutic effects on the body including, muscle strengthening, relief of swelling, decreased joint pain, less stiffness in limbs, improved circulation, weight loss, and increased tissue healing to name a few. For more information on the benefits of hydrotherapy:
http://bit.ly/1w1qqoy

4. Veterinary visit and blood work: Weight gain can also be related to underlying health concerns such as hypothyroidism or other endocrine disorders. Scheduling a veterinary evaluation and routine blood work can be another important component in increasing the longevity of your dog’s life. Conditions such as hypothyroidism that predispose dogs to gain weight can be treated with a daily medication to improve hormonal balance. If feel that your dog is unnecessarily overweight there can be an underlying health condition that needs to be addressed.

5. Healthy treats: Pet owners love the chance to reward their favorite canine companion with treats and most dogs jump at the chance to consume these delicious products. The problem is many treats, which can include commercial dog treats or table scrapes can add many unnecessary calories to your dog’s daily intake. Reading labels and making note of the calories in these treats is an important component of understanding your dog’s overall health. Treats should not exceed more than 10 percent of your pet’s daily calories. There are healthier treats that can be offered to your pet to keep calories lower yet provide a fuller sensation. A pet owner can add steamed or pureed vegetables, such as carrots, green beans or sweet potato to add more fiber and thus a fuller feeling for your dog.

Q. My cocker spaniel is 9 years old. He has involuntary bowel movements (little drops) very frequently, especially when he is asleep.
ANSWER : A. Is your dog on a senior dog food? I would get your dog on a high quality high protien dog food. Ask a pet store assosicate or your regular vet for a food recommendation. When you buy a better food the dog will have to eat less to get the same amount of energy from the food. The dog has to eat more of the cheaper foods to get the energy it needs from it. Meaning more poop and buying more food. So the cost really evens out. So the lessen your dogs bowel movements get on a better senior dog food. Next talk to your vet they may have a recommendation. If you switch dogs do it slowly by mixing the foods. Start with 10% new 90% old mixed for at least a week until you have switched to 100% new 0% old. Senior foods have more fiber to help with bowel movements. Take the dog outside to go potty more frequently, right before bed time.

Read Full Q/A … : Symptoms Questions & Answers

Q. Why is my male dog recently peeing on the furniture?
ANSWER : A. Sudden changes in behavior or habits such as suddenly having accidents can sometimes have a medical basis behind them. Common causes such as urinary tract infections may cause a dog to begin urinating in the house, going more frequently, or having cloudy or blood-tinged urine. It is always a good idea to schedule a wellness exam with your local vet to check for any health issues prior to looking for behavioral ones.

If your dog checks out healthy, other things could be causing his change in behavior. If he is not neutered and is reaching puberty (usually around 7-8 months of age, though it does vary by breed), he may be starting to have a marking behavior. This is when a male dog lifts his leg and leaves just a little bit of urine behind to mark that he was there. Neutering can sometimes help stop or decrease the behavior though it may take several months for results as it takes some time for the surge in hormones to leave the body. Stress, or anxiety if another dog or person in the house may also make the behavior appear as a dog tries to claim his place in the household, or if he is stressed out by another pet.

Be sure to also clean any accident areas with an enzymatic cleaner. These cleaners are designed to break down urine particles and remove scent, making it so your dog cannot smell where he has had an accident before. This can sometimes prevent dogs from repeatedly urinating on an area they had staked out before.

Q. My 4 yr old male Catahoula Leopard Dog mix is a rescue. He’s become very possessive of me around larger dogs. How can I correct this behavior?
ANSWER : A. Sudden behavior changes can sometimes indicate an underlying health issue, so scheduling a checkup with your regular vet is always the first step. Once any health issues have been addressed, then you can address the behavioral ones. It is very common for dogs to become “possessive” of people or objects when around other dogs or people, and is called location guarding. Possession of objects or places can be a little easier to manage, however possession around other dogs can be treated as well. Working from a distance in a technique called BAT or Behavioral Adjustment Training may help. This technique involves your dog and another calm dog. Start off at a far distance and then move in until your dog becomes reactive or wary of the other dog. Move back a small amount and wait for your dog to become calm. If he shows calm behavior, reward with lots of praise, treats and love! If he becomes agitated or possessive, move back until he is calm, or stop the session completely and try again later. While this may take some time, it can help dogs learn that other dogs are not a threat to them or their people. Reading more information about BAT training or contacting a local trainer in your area can help with further advice and techniques!

Q. My 6 year old male dog has been acting paranoid for over a week, pacing, nervous. Now he has not eaten since Friday. Now he is leaking urine
ANSWER : A. He must be seen and assessed fully by a vet as soon as possible. Urinary tract infections can cause significant discomfort and confusion and the associated fever can result in reduced appetite. An infection should be ruled out as soon as possible; bloods and urinalysis may be required

Q. My unfixed grown male dog is slobbering and trying to mount my new male puppy. What’s that about?
ANSWER : A. Mounting behavior can be both a sexual thing in dogs, or a behavioral one. If both dogs are male, it may be that your older dog is trying to establish that he is the boss of the house by trying to mount your younger one. Stopping the behavior is best to prevent any fights from breaking out. Both female and male dogs can do this to each other, and spay/neuter status does not usually play any factor if behaviorally related.

If your younger dog is female, or not spayed, and is about 6-7 months of age, it may be that she is coming into her first heat and your male is very interested in her. Dogs should not be bred during their first heat, and if you do not wish to have puppies in the future, one or both dogs should be fixed.