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Experienced and professional animal trainer provide their insights in answering this question :
A. Frequent urination is often related to cystitis. I would suggest you to try and catch a urine sample (you can use special litter that doesn’t absorb urine) and take it with your cat to your vets. Your vet may put her on special diet if she still has a lot of crystals in her urine.

How to Identify Common Pet Problems ?

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What causes struvite bladder stones? In some cats, struvite bladder stones form as a result of a urinary tract infection. Certain species of urinary bacteria produce a chemical called urease, which leads to changes in urine acidity. Urease-producing bacteria can contribute to the formation of struvite stones.
Because crystals can irritate the cat`s bladder and cause an infection, the cat may be prescribed an antibiotic in order to prevent an infection from occurring. Pain relievers may also be prescribed if the crystals are causing the cat significant pain.
Increasing water intake, regulating urine pH, and encouraging frequent urination can all play a role in decreasing crystalluria in affected cats. Your veterinarian may recommend a prescription diet and/or medications to change the chemical composition of your cat`s urine and discourage crystal formation.
Struvite stones only form in alkaline environments (pH >7) and are always associated with urinary tract infections from urease-producing bacteria such as Proteus.
The cause of struvite crystals in cats is most often the result of eating dry cat food. Due to the lack of moisture in the diet, the urine becomes too concentrated and highly alkaline. A balanced raw meat diet should help to resolve the problem and help eliminate the occurence of struvite crystals in the urine.
Treating Cat Urine Stones

There are several ways to treat urine crystals and stones in cats. Prescription diet: Your vet will prescribe a specially formulated food that alters the chemical composition of your cat`s urine and causes the stones to gradually dissolve within 1-2 months.

Dry and canned therapeutic foods are 100% effective in dissolving feline struvite uroliths in about 1 to 3 weeks.
Some stones are dissolvable within two-to-four weeks of starting a prescription diet, however larger stones can dissolve to a small enough size that they can also become a risk for urinary blockage. Stones must be removed surgically if they are too big and not able to dissolve.
Basically, dogs or cats with Struvite bladder stones should be on a high protein diet with minimal carbohydrates (especially starches and sugars). It`s important that this diet include Omega 3 fatty acids, Magnesium, Potassium, Vitamin B complex, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Glucosamine, and probiotics.
Conclusion: As a consequence of the increase in urine volume and urine acidification, high-protein diets have potential ability to increase solubility of struvite crystals.
Oral antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole-trimethoprim, or macrodantin are administered for 2 weeks at full dose followed by a suppressive dose for another 10 weeks (total = 12 weeks or 3 months).
Examples of these diets include Hills Prescription Diet® s/d® or c/d®, Royal Canin Urinary® SO™, Purina® Pro Plan® Veterinary UR Urinary™, and Rayne Clinical Nutrition Adult Health-RSS™. These formulation help dissolve struvite stones that are already present in the urine and prevents formation of further stones.
Give the medication for the entire prescribed duration unless otherwise directed. Measure liquid forms carefully, and shake well before administering. This medication will take effect quickly, in about 1 to 2 hours. While effects may not be noted outwardly, gradual improvements are usually noticeable after a few days.
For a cat facing a UTI, the most common treatment plan is a course of antibiotics. Luckily, these antibiotics usually work quickly and you can see results in as little as five days if there are no other complications.
How long can a cat have urinary crystals? Some cats will dissolve their struvite stones or urinary tract stones within seven days. On average, however, it can take about 6 weeks of a consistent dissolution diet to be rid of them completely. If it takes much longer than that, you should check back in with your vet.
Taking a course of antibiotics can upset your pet`s stomach and cause vomiting or diarrhea, in some cases. Antibiotic use may also increase the risk of a yeast infection. The benefits of antibiotics outweigh the risk of side effects or secondary infections when your pet actually has a bacterial infection.
Certain medications can also lead to kidney failure in cats. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents can cause kidney failure, as well as certain types of antibiotics.
Additional information to support this hypothesis is that magnesium (which is found in hard water) can contribute to the growth of urine crystals and struvite stones.
Struvite Stones

While any breed can be affected, those most at risk are the domestic shorthair, exotic shorthair, Ragdoll and Himalayan. Cats who consume high amounts of magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride and fiber are also more likely to develop struvite stones.

Age: Peak incidence of struvite uroliths in cats appears to be between 2 and 7 years of age. Sex: Female cats appear to have increased risk for struvite urolithiasis.
CATWATER – Urinary Formula is a distilled natural spring water, which means that it contains no minerals. With its perfectly balanced pH, between 6.2 and 6.4, CATWATER – Urinary Formula offers the best conditions to help prevent urinary problems in cats.
Urinary stone medications such as Ursodiol may also be recommended to dissolve certain types of stones. Increased water intake — either through more drinking or through wet food — helps to dilute the urine.
Urine acidification can dissolve existing struvite crystals and help control the formation of new crystals.

Relevant Questions and Answers :

the most relevant questions and answers related to your specific issue

Q. Why do cats meow?
ANSWER : A. Cat parents often wish they could better understand what their favorite feline friends want or desire. A cat’s meow can be interpreted in many different ways and can indicate an array of feelings and needs. Here are some of the most common reasons for your cat’s vocalizations:

1. Greeting- Many cats will meow as a greeting when you enter your home or walk into a room. Cats will also meow at another cat or animal in the household to extend a hello and acknowledge the other animal’s presence.

2. Attention – An exuberant meow followed by leg rubbing or another attention seeking behavior may indicate your cat is looking for some quality time spent together. Some petting or rubbing behind the ears may be in order.

3. Hunger – A meowing cat is often a hungry cat. This is one of the most common reasons for a cat to vocalize to their owners. A cat will meow to get your attention at feeding times or even when they want extra food.

4. Sickness – A sick or hurt cat may begin to meow excessively, warranting a visit to the veterinarian. There are numerous reasons for a cat in distress to meow—whether it is related to an upset stomach, an injured leg or a urinary blockage. These meows should be carefully investigated.

5. Entering or leaving – Most cats will vocalize when they want to be let in or out of a room. You may notice when you are in the bathroom or behind the closed door of a room that your cat begins to meow, scratches at the door, and often reaches its paw under the door. This is a clear indication that the cat wants to be where you are.

6. Angry – An agitated cat may meow to warn their owner or another household pet that they are upset and would like to be left alone. This angry meow may increase in sound volume as the cat becomes more stressed or agitated. Often a cat will exhibit this type of meow at the veterinary office when they are unhappy with their examination or restraint.

Each feline is different and so are their vocalizations. Learn to understand the variety of meows your cat uses on a daily basis. This will help you develop a better relationship with your cat and help them live a more trusting and happier life.

Q. Male neutered cat [1 1/2 years old] has just started trying to spray everywhere around the house. Nothing is coming out. No recent changes.
ANSWER : A. Changes in urinary habits can be caused by a number of things, especially in neutered male cats. Attempting to urinate or have accidents in places other than the litter box can often be a sign of a urinary tract infection, or crystals and debris in the bladder causing problems. Pets may need to go more frequently, may dribble or urinate in small amounts more often, may have accidents or may have blood-tinged or cloudy urine.Infections are usually treated with medications and changes to the diet, however in some cases of large stones or crystals surgery may be needed.

Male cats can also experience urinary blockage. This is due to a unique anatomical part or the urethra that forms a U-shape before exiting the body in male cats. If a cat has crystals or other debris in the urine, it can block at this point preventing urine from being able to exit. Cats may attempt to urinate without producing anything, may become very vocal (indicating pain) or may have a hunched back, full abdomen or pain in the abdomen (protecting the very full bladder). Urinary blockage IS a medical emergency so if suspected, your vet or local emergency clinic should be contacted immediately. Treatment usually involves a hospital stay and catheterization of the bladder to remove the blockage and allow urine to drain followed by medications and a change in diet to prevent further problems.

It is best to try and collect a sample of urine and make an appointment for your cat if he has had a change in urinary habits. If you do suspect a blockage, then contact your vet ASAP is best.

Q. My cat has been dx with struvite crystals and was given an antibiotic injection. She seemed fine for about a month and now she is urinating more often
ANSWER : A. Frequent urination is often related to cystitis. I would suggest you to try and catch a urine sample (you can use special litter that doesn’t absorb urine) and take it with your cat to your vets. Your vet may put her on special diet if she still has a lot of crystals in her urine.

Q. My cat continues to scratch on furniture and carpets. He has plenty of scratching posts around the house. Please help!
ANSWER : A. Scratching is a natural behavior in cats that can be frequently frustrating for pet owners who want to keep their furniture from being shredded on a constant basis. The texture of furniture and carpet is very appealing to cats and this why they frequently choose to spend their time on this activity as opposed to playing with their own cat toys. Here are some suggestions to help curb this unwanted behavior:

1. Purchase a cat scratching post or cat tree that is covered in carpeted or textured material. Place it in an appealing spot that your cat would be inclined to spend time (eg. in the sun). You can also place catnip on the scratching post or cat tree to make your cat even more interested in the new object.

2. You can utilize double sided tape on the ends of the furniture because you cat will not like the sticky feeling and will learn to not scratch in that region. Use the tape that has a lighter adhesive in order to prevent any permanent damage. Other materials, such as aluminum foil or bubble wrap can also be placed on the furniture to discourage the scratching.

3. Keep nails trimmed short by either learning to do this on your own at home or using a veterinary technician, or groomer. Nails can usually be trimmed every 6-8 weeks.

4. Redirect the unwanted behavior. If your cat begins scratching, use a favorite or new toy to distract the cat from the scratching. Give your cat positive praise for not scratching.

5. As a last resort you can use a spray bottle full of water to spritz your cat when he or she is scratching inappropriately at your furniture. Generally, cats do not like water and this will discourage them from continuing the behavior.

Have patience with your cat because it can takes time to understand this is an unwanted behavior and that furniture is not another toy for them to use. You can always consult your veterinary or veterinary behaviorist to help with ideas or further solutions to this problem.

Read Full Q/A … : I found Pickle on

Q. I found a large amount of pee from my unfixed male cat and it had blood in it. I notice later what looked similar to crystals in the same puddle. Help
ANSWER : A. You should have your cat examined and a urinalysis done immediately. Some cats do form crystals in their urine which leads to bladder inflammation,look in the urine, pain and in creased frequency of urination. The specific problem with male cats is the narrow width of the urethra through which the urine passes. Make cats have a very narrow urethra unlike female cats. The crystals, blood and other “sludge” that forms in the bladder when a cat has cystitis can cause a blockage in male cats and this is an emergency. A urinalysis can determine the extent of the problem and allow your vet to recommend appropriate treatment before it becomes an emergency. Your cat should be seen today.

Read Full Q/A … : Causes of Blood in Cat Urine

Q. How should I interpret my cat’s tail movements?
ANSWER : A. Our feline friends express themselves in many different ways, including through the use of their tails. Most pet owners pay close attention to a happy or excited dog, but they are sometimes less attentive to the posture and movement of their cat. Here are some of the most common cat tail behaviors, and the underlying emotion behind each action:

A flicking tail: Many anxious, nervous or stressed cats will hold their tail in a low position and flick it quickly back and forth. This is often referred to as angry tail, and a pet owner or veterinarian should be on guard for any possible aggressive or defensive activity. If a cat is moving their tail slowly, and not exhibiting the flicking motion, then this cat is at a much calmer state.

Vertical position: Most of the time when a cat is holding their tail in a straight, vertical position this is indicating curiosity and a playful mood. A cat chasing after a laser pointer or playing toys will often have their tails in a vertical position showing their enjoyment. This position also helps with balanced movements. In contrast, if the tail is in the vertical position and the cat’s back is arched with pinned back ears then this could demonstrate a feeling of being threatened and thus result in defensive or aggressive behaviors.

The Tucked Tail: Similar to a dog, a tucked tail often indicates submission or fear. Your cat is conveying upset feelings and should most likely be left alone. This tucked tail appearance can also make a cat look smaller and less threatening to an aggressive cat.

The Tail Twine: Cats will often hook their tail around another cat’s tail, owner’s legs or other objects to show a friendly and affectionate nature. They are also trying to indicate whether they want to receive affection from their owners, be fed or have playtime.

The next time you are home with your feline companion take note on how they express themselves through their tail movements, their ears, body posture and vocalization. You can start to better understand their needs and wants, in addition to what makes them uncomfortable or happy. Cats will surprise you with their array of emotions and varied expressions they can express.

Q. I have a cat that defecates in the litter box but always urinates outside the box. It is very annoying.
ANSWER : A. Inappropriate elimination in cats is often a behavioral problem rather than a medical problem, so the first step is to have him seen by your vet to eliminate any kind of illness or condition as a cause for his eliminating outside the box.

If medical issues are ruled out, take a look at other reasons. Has there been a lot of unusual activity? Has you cat been left at home or boarded? Is the litterbox in a busy area? Has anything happened recently in this area to make him reluctant to use it again? Is there another cat, pet or person that is preventing him from getting to the box? Have you changed it from a hooded to an open box, or vice versa? Is it big enough? Have you changed the type or brand of litter? Is there something attractive about the spot he uses? Cats dislike disturbances to their routine and may act out to express their dissatisfaction.

The general rule is one litter box per cat in the household, plus one. That way each cat can have a place of their own to go in case the box is occupied or another cat has claimed it as territory. They should be scooped daily, if not more often and changed completely weekly, washed with soap and water only. You can offer one kind of litter in one box and another kind in another to see if there is a preference. I don’t recommend the crystals, it makes a hissing sound when wet that startles some cats and make them reluctant to use it again. The litter boxes should be located in a quiet, low-traffic area so that the cat can use them in peace. Make sure any other pets or people aren’t giving them a hard time around or in the litter box. It may take some investigation and experimentation to find your cat’s preference and accommodate him so that everyone is satisfied with the situation. And, when cleaning up pet accidents, don’t use any cleaner containing ammonia. This leaves behind a scent similar to urine.

Q. My cat is pooping outside of the litter bix. He is 2 1/2. He did this as a kitten. It stopped then started about 3 months ago. Litterbox is clean.
ANSWER : A. Inappropriate elimination or house soiling can be a frustrating problem but with a bit of detective work on your part, there is hope. First, before deciding that this is a behavioral issue, any medical problems (diarrhea, constipation, fecal incontinence, pain on defecation, etc.) need to be ruled out and/or treated. If your cat receives a clean bill of health from your vet but is still eliminating outside the litterbox, then we need to consider that something about the box itself might be aversive to your cat. Cats can be quite finicky about their litterbox and toileting habits. Below I have listed common recommendations and cat preferences for litterbox use. Review the list and make any changes that could account for your cat’s aversion to defecating in the litterbox:
* Soft, fine-grained clumping litter (vs, coarse-grained, non-clumping litter)
* Unscented
* 1 – 1 1/2 inch depth (especially older cats or cats with hip problems)
* Larger pans (especially for large cats) – want to get whole body inside – poop just outside the box might mean the box is too small
* Open, non-hooded
* At least one shallow side to get in and out easily
* Easy to get to – not hidden away, preferably in areas they spend time in or near – and not near appliances that make scary, unpredictable noises (washers, dryers, refrigerators)
* Scoop minimum 1X/day – preferably 2
* Clean the litterbox with soap and water and put in fresh scoopable litter at least once/month (instead of just continuously adding)
* Some cats prefer to urinate in one box and defecate in a separate box, so you may need 2 boxes even if you just have 1 cat. Multi-cat households should have 1 box/cat plus 1 extra.