Experienced and professional animal trainer provide their insights in answering this question :
A. Normal blood glucose levels in the dog range between 75-120mg. Have your dog examined by a veterinarian. Blood work (CBC, chemistry panel, and a urinalysis) should be submitted to determine the underlying cause of the low blood sugar or to rule out diabetes.

How to Identify Common Pet Problems ?

Our sources include academic articles, blog posts, and personal essays from experienced pet care professionals :

Clinical signs of hypoglycemia

The clinical signs may vary, are often non-specific, and can wax and wane. Clinical signs may include altered mentation and behavior, seizures, syncope, muscle twitching/fasciculations, somnolence, exercise intolerance, muscle tremors, collapse, ataxia, weakness, and impaired vision.

Increased water intake and weight loss are definitely cause for concern, and should prompt a visit to your veterinarian for an exam and blood tests. The two leading causes of these signs together would be kidney failure and diabetes mellitus.
What causes hypoglycemia in dogs? Hypoglycemia can be caused by exposure to excessive amounts of insulin, excessive glucose consumption by the body, or decreased glucose production.
What are the main symptoms of diabetes in dogs? Weight loss – because the sugars in the diet can`t be used by the body if there is no insulin, and so they are lost in the urine. This means the dog effectively isn`t getting enough calories and so the body starts to break down the fat reserves as well.
The brain needs blood glucose to function. Not enough glucose can impair the brain`s ability to function. Severe or long-lasting hypoglycemia may cause seizures and serious brain injury.
Possible Complications

Severe low blood sugar is a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock.

Dog Dehydration

Hot summer days, play, exercise, illness, infection — all of these can lead to dehydration in dogs and trigger them to seek water. Older dogs and dogs that are sick, pregnant, or nursing can get dehydrated easily.

An insulinoma is a tumor of the pancreas that affects the regulation of your dog`s sugar levels, causing hypoglycemia, also referred to as low blood sugar. This tumor usually occurs in middle-aged or older dogs. Both mixed breeds and pure breeds can be affected by this type of tumor.
Researchers say that owing to their acute sense of smell, dogs may be able to detect changes in the composition of their owner`s sweat that occur when they are becoming hypoglycemic. Another theory is that visual cues such as the owner looking disorientated or trembling may alert the dog.
Surgery, drug reactions, stress, heart disease, and other issues may also cause weight loss in canines. If your dog is refusing to eat, losing weight, or has any other digestive or feeding issues, play it safe and let the veterinarian take a look at your pet.
Eight issues which are commonly the root problem in elderly dogs where weight loss is a symptom. These issues are liver/gallbladder disease, dehydration, dental issues, kidney disease, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. Each one of these issues needs to be diagnosed and addressed by your vet.
Neuroglycopenic symptoms (confusion, sensation of warmth, weakness or fatigue, severe cognitive failure, seizure, coma) are the results of brain glucose deprivation itself.
They include shakiness, sweating, confusion, erratic behavior, headache, and lightheadedness. With nighttime hypoglycemia, you may wake up with these symptoms or with a higher blood sugar reading that results from the body`s response to an overnight low.
As caffeine is a stimulant, it can trigger seizures in some people. Even drinking large amounts of tea or coffee can give you more than the daily recommended amount of caffeine and this could trigger a seizure if you have already a lower seizure threshold.
Typically, green urine indicates late-stage kidney failure, cancer of the kidneys, or extremely severe urinary tract infection. Urine may turn green because bilirubin makes its way into the kidneys, where it is not supposed to be.
Symptoms and Identification

Many dogs will drink and urinate a lot at first. If acute renal failure worsens, the kidneys may stop working altogether and the dogs will not urinate at all. Bloodwork and urinalysis are commonly performed to diagnose kidney failure.

Summary of Kidney Failure in Dogs

Acute kidney failure happens suddenly, and if caught and treated quickly, can be reversed. While there is no cure for chronic kidney failure, symptoms can be minimized with fluid therapy and diet changes.

For dogs with renal health issues, feed them a diet of high-quality protein with low phosphorus and sodium, and added omega-3 fatty acids, such as a mix of good quality meat, veggies like bell peppers, and either a supplement of omega-3`s or fish, flax, sardines, or anchovies.
Any dog who has diarrhea or vomiting loses body fluids. In order to avoid dehydration, dogs who`ve recently suffered from diarrhea and/or vomiting may drink more than normal.
Excessive drinking can be the result of a walk in the summer heat as well as an indication of serious illness. If your dog has diabetes or an inflammation of the bladder or uterus, it will have an increased need for water. Painful kidney disease, for example, can also be a trigger for your dog to drink a lot.
Tumors on your pancreas, called insulinomas, make extra insulin — more than your body can use. This causes blood sugar levels to drop too low. These tumors are rare and usually do not spread to other parts of your body.
An insulinoma is a rare pancreatic beta-cell tumor that hypersecretes insulin. The main symptom is fasting hypoglycemia. Diagnosis is by a 48- or 72-hour fast with measurement of glucose and insulin levels, followed by endoscopic ultrasound.
Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar is a common problem in small breed puppies and young kittens. Young animals in general do not have the energy stores yet developed that adults have, allowing them to maintain an adequate blood glucose (BG) in times of fasting or stress.
If you think your dog`s blood sugar is low, the goal is to adjust your dog`s blood glucose levels as quickly as possible. Studies show that if your dog is having a serious hypoglycemic episode involving seizures, you may be able to rub corn syrup, fruit juice, or honey on your dog`s gums once the seizures have stopped.

Relevant Questions and Answers :

the most relevant questions and answers related to your specific issue

Q. The last month my rat terrier has lost weight/increase thirst. Blood sugar level 58. Suspect low blood sugar. No seizures or coma, shaking.
ANSWER : A. Normal blood glucose levels in the dog range between 75-120mg. Have your dog examined by a veterinarian. Blood work (CBC, chemistry panel, and a urinalysis) should be submitted to determine the underlying cause of the low blood sugar or to rule out diabetes.

Q. How do I determine how much my overweight pet should weigh?
ANSWER : A. There are many tools to determine overweight and obesity levels in pets. A new tool, morphometric measurements and body fat index, are available to accurately determine a pet’s ideal weight; this will allow an accurate determination of the amount of food a pet should receive to achieve weight loss. Feeding the correct amount will lead to greater weight loss success.

There are many weight loss food options to help pets reach their ideal weight. Your veterinarian can help make a ideal weight recommendation. Here are some tips to help your dog lose weight in a healthy and safe way:

1. Diet: Providing a healthy and well balanced diet is essential to your pet’s overall health. Finding the right food for your dog can be a challenging process. For those overweight animals many commercial dog companies offer weight loss diets, but it is important to evaluate food labels for adequate nutritional content.

You want to ensure you are not missing other essential vitamin or mineral content. Volume of food is also important and the amount of food that works for one breed of dog may not be the same for another breed of dog. Portion control as opposed to free-choice feeding can help your dog to drop a few unnecessary pounds.

There are also prescription weight loss foods designed by veterinary nutritionists, such as Hill’s r/d (http://bit.ly/1AoENSd). Some pet owners find that home cooking is the best option for helping to provide a well-balanced and realistic diet plan. There are websites such as balanceit.com that offers recipes to fit your dog’s specific needs. Consulting with your veterinarian or a veterinary nutritionist to find the appropriate diet is a great way to help your dog be as healthy as possible.

2. Exercise: Another great tactic for weight loss for your dog is exercise. Whether this is through running, walking or playing with a favorite toy all of these are wonderful types of exercise to help keep your dog at a lean and healthy weight.

For those pet owners with busy schedules utilizing professional dog walking services or playtime through dog daycare services is another option. It has been shown that those pet owners that exercise regularly with their pets generally live a healthier lifestyle.

3. Physical therapy: As animals age pet owners offer encounter their favorite canine having more difficulty walking and have a dwindling desire to play with toys. Physical therapy, specifically hydrotherapy is a wonderful way to help older and arthritic animals gain more mobility and lose weight. Hydrotherapy has been proven to have several therapeutic effects on the body including, muscle strengthening, relief of swelling, decreased joint pain, less stiffness in limbs, improved circulation, weight loss, and increased tissue healing to name a few. For more information on the benefits of hydrotherapy:
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4. Veterinary visit and blood work: Weight gain can also be related to underlying health concerns such as hypothyroidism or other endocrine disorders. Scheduling a veterinary evaluation and routine blood work can be another important component in increasing the longevity of your dog’s life. Conditions such as hypothyroidism that predispose dogs to gain weight can be treated with a daily medication to improve hormonal balance. If feel that your dog is unnecessarily overweight there can be an underlying health condition that needs to be addressed.

5. Healthy treats: Pet owners love the chance to reward their favorite canine companion with treats and most dogs jump at the chance to consume these delicious products. The problem is many treats, which can include commercial dog treats or table scrapes can add many unnecessary calories to your dog’s daily intake. Reading labels and making note of the calories in these treats is an important component of understanding your dog’s overall health. Treats should not exceed more than 10 percent of your pet’s daily calories. There are healthier treats that can be offered to your pet to keep calories lower yet provide a fuller sensation. A pet owner can add steamed or pureed vegetables, such as carrots, green beans or sweet potato to add more fiber and thus a fuller feeling for your dog.

Q. Which common foods are poisonous to pets?
ANSWER : A. That’s a great question. As responsible pet owners we need to be aware of food items that can be harmful to our canine or feline companions. Here are some of the most common foods proven to cause illness in our animals at home:

Chocolate: A favorite and irresistible treat amongst most humans, chocolate is considered toxic to dogs. In very small amounts it is usually not a huge issue, but with larger volumes and with darker chocolates pet owners should be concerned. Chocolate contains methylxanthine theobromine, which is similar to caffeine. Chocolate ingestion can cause vomiting, diarrhea, hyperactivity, issues with normal heartbeats, seizures, and in some severe cases, death. It is best to keep your favorite chocolate treats in a good hiding spot and out of reach of your dog or cat.

Grapes and raisins: Dogs should not consume grapes and raisins because of the risk of acute kidney failure. Most dogs experiencing grape or raisin toxicity will begin to have vomiting and/or diarrhea within 6-12 hours of ingestion. Other abnormal clinical signs include lethargy, abdominal pain, dehydration, and tremors. Kidney failure develops within 24-72 hours of the initial ingestion. There are some dogs that do not experience these devastating side effects. It is best to contact your veterinarian or veterinary emergency facility if you believe your pet has ingested grapes or raisins.

Garlic and onions: We often forget that our meals contain these two popular ingredients and will allow our furry companions a few bites or licks. Onion and garlic both can cause a type of poisoning that results in damage to red blood cells, making them more likely to rupture. They can also cause stomach upset and mouth irritation. Look for pale gums, increased breathing or drooling or any vomiting or diarrhea.

Bread dough: Unbaked bread dough is considered poisonous to our pets. The bread dough, when ingested, expands in the stomach because of the warm and moist environment. This can lead to a bloated or even twisted stomach. In addition yeast is often added to our baking products to help get bread to rise, and when this yeast is fermented it produces both carbon dioxide and alcohol. The alcohol produced can be absorbed into the bloodstream and causes dangerous drops in blood sugar, blood pressure and body temperature. Common clinical signs include vomiting or retching, distension of the stomach, weakness and collapse.

Macadamia nuts: Ingestion of these nuts are not proven to be fatal in dogs but can cause them to experience uncomfortable clinical sings, including fever, joint stiffness, vomiting, tremors and difficulty walking, especially in their hind legs. Often your pet will start to feel better after about 48 hours, but supportive veterinary care (such as pain medication) may help ease their discomfort.

Xylitol: The most common ingredient used in sugar-free gum is xylitol, which is a non-caloric sweetener. It is also found in some oral rinses, toothpastes and vitamins. Xylitol and dogs do not mix – it can cause a dangerous drop in blood sugars levels. Dogs will often display signs of disorientation, black tarry stool, tremors and seizures. If severe enough some dogs have developed liver failure. Keep your gum away from your canine companion.

Avocados: Avocados are not actually poisonous to dogs or cats but as many veterinarians can tell you the avocado pits can cause a foreign body obstruction. Avocados contain persin, which is actually toxic to the majority of pet birds. The abnormal clinical signs associated with avocado ingestion in birds include, respiratory distress, inability to perch, liver and kidney failure and sudden death.

Go forth and enjoy your favorite foods, but keep in mind which foods you should avoid sharing with your furry family members. Whenever in doubt, contact your veterinarian for healthy and safe food suggestions.

Q. My dog drinks a lot of water, should I worry?
ANSWER : A. Firstly, you should quantify if your dog is actually drinking an excessive amount of water. In a 24 hour period, a dog should drink about 1 fluid ounce (or 30mL) per pound of body weight. Therefore, the recommended amount of water intake (in fluid ounces) equals your dog’s weight (in pounds). For example, if your dog weighs 8 pounds, he/she should drink about a cup of water in a 1 hour period. This will be slightly increased if your dog gets a lot of physical activity or lives outdoors.

You can measure your dog’s water intake the following way: in the morning, measure a specific amount, a little bit more than you think he/she will drink. 24 hours later, measure the remaining amount. If the amount of water your dog drank is significantly greater than it should be, then you should take your dog to a veterinarian.

Causes for mildly increased water consumption include: food changes, increased ambient and body temperature, increased activity, urinary tract infection, and general illness.

Common causes for greatly increased water consumption include: diabetes, urinary tract infection, kidney disease, steroid use, and other systemic diseases. With large increases in water consumption, you will also usually see increased urination. Please take note of urinary patterns to discuss with your vet. Greatly increased drinking and urination is ALWAYS a reason to see a vet.

Q. One of my cats has been admitted into hospital this afternoon, her blood sugars are dropping dangerously low will she survive on IV drip overnight
ANSWER : A. Low blood sugar level can be monitored and controlled in hospital. Important question is why blood sugar is dropping dengerously low. This should be investigated and treated if possible.

Q. Why is my dog shaking and stiff ass if he is having a seizers
ANSWER : A. That may be exactly what is happening to him. Make sure he is in a safe place where he can’t hurt himself, away from furniture or anything that can fall on him. If he seems to be recovering, call your veterinarian and let them know what happened. Keep a close eye on him, if he has another seizure on the heels of this one, then he needs to be seen by your vet right away. Sustained or repeated seizures can cause the body temperature to rise to dangerous levels and increases the risk of brain damage.

When you have a chance, take a look around and see if you can find anything he might have gotten into, since poisoning is one of the causes of seizures. If he has a history of liver or kidney disease, this is also a potential cause. Sometimes we never know why a pet has a seizure. If he does have a series of seizures, your vet will want to do an exam and bloodwork to try and determine a cause and potentially put your pet on anti-seizure medication to lessen the chances of this happening again in the future.

Q. Cat is over 13 years old, blood test show anemia, weight loss, increase appetite, thick nails, very vocal, blood test did not show thyroid disease,tre
ANSWER : A. It is possible another metabolic issue could be causing the anemia and weight loss, or a more in-depth thyroid test is needed beyond the basic panel. Anemia can be caused by a number of things including blood loss from internal or external bleeding, failure to produce enough blood cells, or destruction of the blood cells by the immune system. Looking for causes of anemia may help you to find the underlying cause causing your cat’s symptoms. Additional tests such as ultrasound, further blood work and more may be beneficial.

Q. how many seizures per week/month/year in a dog would warrant them being put on phenobarbital
ANSWER : A. This depends on the type and duration of the seizures, their cause and the general health of the dog. There is no set number. The veterinarian will weigh the risk of side effects from the medication up against the risk of seizures and will then decide for the least dangerous or damaging option. So if you have an otherwise healthy young dog and he only has a small short seizure once a month, the vet may decide not to put the dog on medication until the amount of seizures increases or the duration increases. You should discuss the pros and cons for your dog with the veterinarian who diagnosed the seizures.